by Peter Barr
At the time of The Battle of Killiecrankie on 27th July 1689 England and Scotland were two separate countries each with their own parliaments and, since the death of Elizabeth 1st in 1603, a shared monarch.
In 1685, the second surviving son of Charles 1st became King James 2nd of England and Ireland AND King James 7th King of Scotland, the last Catholic Monarch of the three countries. When the wife of James 7th produced a Catholic male heir a number of senior English Protestants invited Protestant William of Orange and his wife Mary to come from the Netherlands to rescue England from the Catholic King. In February 1689 William and Mary were installed as joint monarchs.